Long-term undifferentiated cell culture systems derived from inner cell mass of developing embryos are called as embryonic stern (ES) cell culture systems (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Martin, 1981). These cells are pluripotent in nature and can be induced to differentiate into cells of different lineage. Which is found in multicellular organisms. Stem cells manly divide into two broad category, embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and second is adult stem cells, which are found in several tissues. In adult animals, stem cells and precursor cells act as a repair system for the body, replacing adult tissues. Self-renewal is the property of a stem cell which gives the ability to get divide and produce many identical daughter cells. Another interesting property of Stem cell is the Developmental potential which gives him the ability to produce specialized cells.The ability of self-renewal and differentiation are the unique properties making stem cells to differ from other cells in the body. The establishment of first embryonic stem (ES) cells in mice, but nowadays stem cells have been the focus of dynamic research because of their enormous future for basic research, medicine and animal biotechnology. Work with fish stem cell culture has skilled 20 years. An overview on the history of stem cell research, will give the basic knowledge and recent advances of fish stem cell cultures and biotechnology, various applications of stem cells such as the germ cell culture and transplantation, gene targeting and semi-cloning.
by LakhanLalMeena, ShubhamVarshney*, and Naresh Raj Keer
ICAR-CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES EDUCATION, MUMBAI 400061