Nipah Visrus has emerged as a deadly pathogen for South Asian countries and poses great threat if transmitted from one region to another. CDC and WHO have issued various guidelines and research grant schemes to combat deadly disease and to prevent its transmission into other parts of world. The disease has claimed 100s of life alone in Bangladesh and India after it was first reported in 1999. Though it seems that it has taken few lives but if ignored it can turn this earth into graveyard. In this article every aspect has been included to understand this deadly virus and ongoing research.
The name ‘Nipah virus’ originated from Kampung Sungai Nipah (Nipah River Village) in Malaysia, where the first isolates were obtained in 1999 among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in which 300 human cases with over 100 deaths were reported. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging pathogen and in the WHO R&D Blueprint list of epidemic threats needing urgent R&D action. From 1999 to 2015, more than 600 cases of Nipah virus human infections were reported. Since then, human NiV outbreaks have been reported in India and Bangladesh. While no new outbreaks have been reported in Malaysia and Singapore, repeated outbreaks have been noted in Bangladesh almost every year since 2001 in select districts with occasional outbreaks in neighbouring India. Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae, characterized by high pathogenicity and endemic in South Asia. It is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) agent. The case-fatality varies from 40% to 70% depending on the severity of the disease and on the availability of adequate healthcare facilities. Moreover, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have classified NiV as a ‘Category C’ priority pathogen.
by Kamal Pratap Singh